The mystery of Merlin’s Charm of Making is, alas, no longer a mystery. Although Merlin and Morgana both pronounce things differently from each other, and even Merlin has two sounds which to me sound like phonemes but which must be allophonic, I get the following from the Charm of Making in John Boorman’s film Excalibur:

/a'na:l naθ'rax, u:rθ va:s be'θud, dox'je:l 'djenve:/

It’s certainly not Welsh. It looks very much like an attempt at Old Irish. (One wonders where Boorman got it.) Following is the best I can do at reconstructing reasonable Old Irish from it. It is probably a defective reconstruction. I have normalized to Modern Irish orthography to indicate lenition.

In Old Irish
Anál nathrach, orth’ bháis’s bethad, do chél dénmha

In Modern Irish:
Anáil nathrach, ortha bháis is beatha, do chéal déanaimh

In English:
Serpent's breath, charm of death and life, thy omen of making.

anál nathrach = breath of serpent
orth’ bháis ’s bethad = spell of death and of life
do chél dénmha = thy omen of making

anál fem. -á stem ‘breath, breathing’
nathair fem. -k stem ‘snake, serpent’ g. sg. nathrach
ortha fem. -n stem ‘prayer; incantation, spell’, from Latin oratio
bás masc. -o stem ‘death’ g. sg. báis
ocus conj. ‘and’ here shortened to 's
betha masc. -t stem ‘life’ bethad
do prn. ‘thy’ Usually unstressed
cél masc. -u stem ‘omen, augury, portent’
dénumh masc. -m stem ‘making, doing’ dénmha

Modern Irish would have the -is in bháis as a /sh/ sound, but it might not have been so palatalized in the Old Irish period; and the nonpalatal ’s of ‘and’ ought to reinforce that. The third part of the charm could also be dochél dénmha ‘an evil omen of making’, but that suits the sense badly. The word do ‘thy’ is usually unstressed in speech but what can you do...

Note that Merlin says dénmhe, which ought to be dénmha; perhaps there is some sort of ‘incantation register’ in which a final vowel can be altered in this way.... In any case, I am less than happy with the third part of this. I'd like to have seen an imperative or hortative, but verb-first syntax precludes even dénae, the imperative of do-gní (from which the verbal noun dénumh is formed), which anyway doesn’t have the nominal formative -mh.

I would be interested in hearing from specialists in Old Irish as to their opinions of this. There are other possibilities for the retro-translation, and indeed the use of a Latin loanword, given the context, is problematic.


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Del lat. innovatio, -ōnis.

1. f. Acción y efecto de innovar.

Sin.:cambio, mejora, novedad, originalidad, invención, perfeccionamiento.

2. f. Creación o modificación de un producto, y su introducción en un mercado.

Sin.:cambio, mejora, novedad, originalidad, invención, perfeccionamiento.

Sinónimos o afines de innovación
  • cambio, mejora, novedad, originalidad, invención, perfeccionamiento.
- - -

1. adj. Fundado en la experiencia, o que se sabe y alcanza por ella. Física, conocimiento experimental.

Sin.:empírico, práctico, probado.

2. adj. Que sirve de experimento, con vistas a posibles perfeccionamientos, aplicaciones y difusión.

3. adj. Que tiende a la búsqueda de nuevas formas estéticas y de técnicas expresivas renovadoras. Música experimental. Apl. a pers., u. t. c. s.

- - -

Del lat. cultūra.

1. f. cultivo


2. f. Conjunto de conocimientos que permite a alguien desarrollar su juicio crítico.

Sin.:educación, erudición, sabiduría, instrucción, ilustración, formación.
Ant.:incultura, ignorancia, anticultura.

3. f. Conjunto de modos de vida y costumbres, conocimientos y grado de desarrollo artístico, científico, industrial, en una época, grupo social, etc.


4. f. desus. Culto religioso.

 De 'El dilema de los innovadores', Clayton M. Christensen.

La tecnología punta debe ser encuadrada como un desafío de márketing,  no tecnológico. 

Debido a que las tecnologías punta raramente tienen sentido para los mercados principales, durante los años en que la inversión financiera en ella es lo más importante, la sabiduría gerencial convencional presente en las formas establecidas constituye una barrera que los emprendedores de las tecnologías punta y sus inversores no encuentran.


                          THE SPANISH SERIES

                          SCULPTURE IN SPAIN

                          THE SPANISH SERIES

                     _EDITED BY ALBERT F. CALVERT_

                           EL GRECO
                           THE PRADO
                           THE ESCORIAL
                           SCULPTURE IN SPAIN
                           VALENCIA AND MURCIA
                           ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN
                           SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR
                           LEON, BURGOS AND SALAMANCA
                           CATALONIA AND BALEARIC ISLANDS
                           VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA,
                             ZAMORA, AVILA AND ZARAGOZA

                               IN SPAIN

                      :: BY ALBERT F. CALVERT ::
                     :: WITH 162 ILLUSTRATIONS ::


                  Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
                  At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh
[sigue aquí] 


1. Rakushisha is the cottage of the Genroku poet Mukai Kyorai. Kyorai was one of the ten disciples of the famous haiku poet Matsuo Basho. Basho once referred to Kyorai in this way: "In Kyoto there is Kyorai, who is in charge of haikai in Western Japan". Kyorai was the most important poet to continue Basho's authentic style after the master died.

2. Rakushisha is shown in Shui Miyako Meisho Zue (Map of Famous Places in Kyoto), "at the foot of Ogurayama and behund Hinoyashiro in Yamamoto-cho". The Hinoyahiro is now the tomb of Uchiko Naishin'no, the sixth daughter of Emperor Saga.

3. In the garden we have a poem sotne which was made Inoue Juko, a relative of Kyorai and a disciple of a haiku poet named Chomu, in the autumn of 1772 with this poem:
     Kakinushi ya                    master of persimmons
     kozue wa chikaki             treetrops are close to
     Arashiyama                      Stormy Mountain
As the story goes, Kyorai had about forty persimmon trees in the garden of his hut in Saga. One autumn when they were heavy with fruit, he had arranged to sell the persimmons. But the night before they were to be picked a great storm arose. The next morning not a single persimmon was left on the trees. Kyorai was enlightened by this experience, and from then on called the hut "Rakushisha" (the cottage of the fallen persimmons).

4. Kyorai's master Basho visited Rakushisha three times; in 1689. 1691, and 1694. When he visited here the second time, he stayed from April 18 to May 5. The diary he kept then is called "Saga Nikki" and was published in the third year of Horeki (1573). His last visit to Rakushisha was about four months before he died.

5. In the western corner of the garden there is a poem stone with the poem:
     samidare ya                    summer rains
     shikishi hegitaru            trace of a poem card
     kabe no ato                     torn off the wall
This is Basho's haiku with wich he ended his "Saga Nikki."

6. On the poem stone next to it is the haiku by Takahama Kyoshi:
     oyoso tenka ni                I've visited
     Kyorai hodo no              the world's smallest
     chiisaki haka ni              Kyorai's
     mairi keri                       gravestone
He made this poem when he visited the gravestone in the 41st year of Meiji (1908). The calligraphy was done by the poet himself, and the stone was made in Showa 34 (1959).

7. To the north of those two stones there is a small stone monument to Shaku Hyosai, who was a famous journalist for the Asahi (newspaper) and demonstrated his talent in haiga (haiku paintings), He made a great contribution to the conservation of Rakushisha. We have a poem stone of his haiku at the entrance to the Kyorai's graveyard;
     akikaze ni                      left behind
     fuki nokosarete             the autumn wind
     haka hitotsu                  single gravestone

8. There is a gorinto (five stone monument) called "haijin to" (monument for haiku poets) at the back of the garden. It was erected by Kudo Shiranshi, the eleventh master of Rakushisha, and is dedicated to all the haiku poets in the past, present and future.
     Note: Gorinto is a monument composed of five pieces piled up one upon another representing, from the bottom upward, earth, water, fire, wind, and heaven respectively.

9. A poem stone to the "haijin to" has the haiku in the original calligraphy of a former president of Kyoto University, Hirasawa Ko,
     haru no ame                    the spring rain
     ame tsuchi koko ni         heaven and earth here
     haijin  to                         the monument
                                                                     haiku poets

10. Kyorai's gravestone is in the Kogenji Graveyard a hundred meters north of Rakushisha. Only his name "Kyorai" is carved in the natural stone which is only forty centimeters tall.

11. Rakushisha is now conserved by the Rakushisa Conservation Association.

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 Hendrick Avercamp fue un pintor y dibujante holandés barroco, que nació en Ámsterdam en enero de 1585 y murió el 15 de mayo de 1634 en Kampen, se convirtió en el máximo exponente del paisaje invernal. Hendrick Avercamp era conocido como el mudo de Kampen porque era sordomudo.

 A Fata Morgana (Italian: [ˈfaːta morˈɡaːna]) is a complex form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon. It is an Italian term named after the Arthurian sorceress Morgan le Fay, from a belief that these mirages, often seen in the Strait of Messina, were fairy castles in the air or false land created by her witchcraft to lure sailors to their deaths.[citation needed] Although the term Fata Morgana sometimes is applied to other more common kinds of mirages, true Fata Morgana is different from both an ordinary superior mirage and an inferior mirage.
Fata Morgana mirages significantly distort the object or objects on which they are based, often such that the object is completely unrecognizable. A Fata Morgana may be seen on land or at sea, in polar regions, or in deserts. It may involve almost any kind of distant object, including boats, islands, and the coastline.
Often, a Fata Morgana changes rapidly. The mirage comprises several inverted (upside down) and erect (right side up) images that are stacked on top of one another. Fata Morgana mirages also show alternating compressed and stretched zones.[1]
The optical phenomenon occurs because rays of light are bent when they pass through air layers of different temperatures in a steep thermal inversion where an atmospheric duct has formed.[1] (A thermal inversion is an atmospheric condition where warmer air exists in a well-defined layer above a layer of significantly cooler air. This temperature inversion is the opposite of what is normally the case; air is usually warmer close to the surface, and cooler higher up.)
In calm weather, a layer of significantly warmer air may rest over colder dense air, forming an atmospheric duct that acts like a refracting lens, producing a series of both inverted and erect images. A Fata Morgana requires a duct to be present; thermal inversion alone is not enough to produce this kind of mirage. While a thermal inversion often takes place without there being an atmospheric duct, an atmospheric duct cannot exist without there first being a thermal inversion.


Proviene del latín imbecillis, palabra latina formada con el prefijo privativo in- antepuesto a bacillum --origen de la palabra bacilo*--, que es el diminutivo de baculum ‘bastón’, con lo que imbecillis viene a significar literalmente ‘sin bastón’. Baculum proviene del griego baktron ‘báculo’, ‘bastón’, emparentado éste con la raíz indoeuropea bak-.

Imbecillis no tenía la connotación negativa que le damos hoy o la tenía de un modo diferente: significaba ‘frágil’, ‘débil’, ‘vulnerable’ y también ‘enfermizo’, ‘sin carácter’ o ‘pusilánime’.

Fue con estos significados con los que la voz imbecil --palabra aguda-- llegó al español desde su primera documentación en 1524 y como tal figuró en la edición de 1780 del Diccionario de la Real Academia, pero en 1822 se introdujo el significado moderno, aunque los romanos ya usaban esta palabra con el sentido de ‘debilidad de espíritu’.

Hay quien opina que la acentuación actual como voz grave proviene de una mala interpretación del tilde en el francés imbécille, pero Corominas cree más probable que se trate de un error como el que ocurre, por ejemplo, cuando se dice sútil u hóstil, error que, a la postre, se impuso.
En psicología, imbecilidad es un grado de debilidad mental de menor gravedad que la idiocia o idiotez y mayor que la insuficiencia mental leve.

Estos textos ha sido extraídos de los libros de Ricardo Soca La fascinante historia de las palabras y Nuevas fascinantes historias de las palabras.